Breast cancer develops when the breast cells and tissues grow out of control and become cancerous. A lump in the breast, a change in how your breast appears or feels, fluid discharge from the nipple, an inverted nipple, dimpling of the skin, or a scaly or red patch of skin are all indications of breast cancer.
When breast cancer is at an advanced stage with an extensive spread of the disease, the patient may experience bone pain, yellow skin, swollen lymph nodes, or dyspnea (shortness of breath).
Tumor size is one of the most critical factors in determining the stage of breast cancer, says Dr. Garvit Chitkara, an acclaimed breast cancer surgeon in Mumbai.
There are a total of 4 primary stages of breast cancer.The stage offers a uniform approach to describing the malignancy for clinicians to collaborate and develop the most effective treatment plans.
The TNM staging system for breast cancer describes the extent of cancer in the body. It is made up of 3 parts:
T – Tumor stage
There are 5 classifications for breast cancer tumors based on size:
N – Node stage
Determining whether neighboring lymph nodes have been affected also contributes to breast cancer staging. In order to achieve this, a clinical examination, ultrasound, FNAC or one or more lymph nodes from the armpit are removed and examined under a microscope.
The lymph node status is classified as:
M – Metastasis stage
The eminent breast oncology surgeon in Mumbai, Dr. Garvit Chitkara, says that The occurrence of metastasis shows that cancer has spread to an area of the body other than the original site.
Receptors are proteins that react to the hormones progesterone and estrogen.Medical professionals classify breast cancer asestrogen receptors (ER-positive or estrogen receptor-positive) and progesterone receptors (PgR-positive or progesterone receptors-positive).
The most successful treatment for cases involving hormone receptors is typically hormone therapy.
Healthy breast cells’ development, division, and repair are all regulated by the HER2 receptor protein. Doctors check the HER2 receptor level to see if it is higher than expected. Higher HER2 receptor level causes the cells to grow and mutate abnormally fast and the tumor is classified as HER2 positive
In these circumstances, targeted medicines typically perform well.
Doctors classify cancer cells compared to non-cancerous cells based on their appearance under the microscope. Low-grade cancer cells are those that closely resemble healthy ones. The growth of these cancer cells is slower. High-grade cancer cells are recognized as being distinct from normal cells and have the propensity to multiply quickly.
A doctor might employ systemic treatments for these, such as hormone therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and other treatments. Radiation could also be utilized for cancer in its advanced stages, but it is more likely to be combined with other treatments.
Dr. Garvit Chitkara, a highly experienced breast surgical oncologist in Mumbai, adds that the tumor’s size and location (spread) are critical components in determining the stage of breast cancer and suitable treatment.
Despite this, doctors also take into account several additional factors, such as:
Breast tissue can develop breast cancer for years without any obvious lumps or bumps. Regular mammography might help detect the tumor earlier than you can through self-examinations.
The size of the tumor plays a significant role in the staging of breast cancer and can influence a patient’s prognosis and available treatments. When the tumors are minor, early detection by medical professionals can make managing and treating them easier.
The likelihood of a successful outcome increases with how early in stage breast cancer tumor is discovered. Early-stage malignancies often respond well to treatment. Your chance of developing metastases and life-threatening diseases can be significantly reduced if the cancer is detected early.
If you or a loved one suspects breast cancer, please visit Dr. Garvit Chitkara, a top-notch breast cancer surgeon in Mumbai, as soon as possible. He has over 15 years of expertise and is one of the preferred surgeons for people seeking breast cancer surgery in Mumbai.